Understanding the Small Church - Six Trends

From Voice, Jul/Aug 2013. Used by permission. Read Part 1 and Part 2.

Though we may understand the characteristics of the small church, ministry is not static, but dynamic. It is not conducted in a sterile test tube isolated from the winds of culture. Instead, we find that the culture in which we live intertwines with the programs we conduct. As a result, the trends that blow across the cultural landscape infiltrate the cracks of the church and affect the ministry and flow of the congregation. Some of these trends are positive, resulting in new opportunities to reach people for Christ. Others undermine the foundation of the church and, if not confronted with a biblical response, assault the stability of the ministry. Still others are neutral, having in themselves no moral or spiritual implications, but radically affect the manner in which the church conducts its ministry.

Paul recognized the transitory nature of the culture when he wrote,

Though I am free and belong to no man, I make myself a slave to everyone, to win as many as possible. To the Jews I became like a Jew, to win the Jews. To those under the law I became like one under the law (though I myself am not under the law), so as to win those under the law. To those not having the law I became like one not having the law (though I am not free from God’s law but am under Christ’s law), so as to win those not having the law. To the weak I became weak, to win the weak. I have become all things to all men so that by all possible means I might save some. I do all this for the sake of the gospel, that I may share in its blessings. (1 Cor. 9:19-23)

Part of the reason for Paul’s success was that he kept his finger upon the heartbeat of the culture of his day and adapted his methodology to fit the people that he was serving.

While the number of trends and cultural issues confronting the church rapidly and continually changes, there are six that play an important role in defining and influencing the manner in which the church serves its people and its community.

Trend 1: mobility

People are constantly on the move. Where farmers once tilled only the land that was in close proximity to their home, now it is common for them to travel thirty to forty miles to reach segments of their farm. Ranchers have summer and winter ranges in different states to benefit from various climates. People in small towns drive to larger cities for their shopping, socializing, and church activities. People in the city bypass a number of solid, evangelical churches of varying sizes and denominations to attend the church of their choice. The effect of this movement means that the church, even in the rural areas, cannot assume that people will attend just because their doors are open. The church needs to carefully examine who it desires to reach, what it is doing to attract people, and how it will keep them once they start coming.

Trend 2: multiple social centers

In many smaller towns, the church used to be the social center for the people within the congregation as well as the community at large. People would pack the church to hear a gospel singing group or traveling evangelists because it was the only social activity around. In today’s culture, there is such a large number of social activities available for the family that many feel overwhelmed. For adults there are social clubs such as the Lions, the local volunteer fire department, softball, bowling, and golf leagues. For the children there are swimming meets, Little League, junior soccer, Boy Scouts, and Camp Fire Girls. This, coupled with the fact that since the early 1970s people’s leisure time has declined by as much as one-third, has resulted in the modern family feeling pulled in a number of different directions with little time for church activities. Today churches struggle to get even their own members to attend special events. Getting the unchurched to attend is even more difficult. No longer is the church a social center for the community. Consequently, the small church is having to rethink how it will conduct its evangelistic programs in order to attract new people.

Trend 3: poverty

Poverty is no longer just an inner-city urban problem. The percentage of families below the poverty line is approximately the same in rural and non-metropolitan areas as it is in the central city.1 However, there is a marked difference in the percentage of poor families who receive welfare. Fifty percent of inner-city families below the poverty line receive assistance compared only to thirty percent of people residing in rural areas.2 As a result, in smaller communities more emphasis is placed upon community assistance than federal programs. The church needs to be sensitive to the economic needs of people and be willing to assist people as a way of gaining an audience for sharing the gospel of Christ. Social action is not just for the inner-city church, it is for the rural church as well. Food baskets during the holidays, special offerings for needy families, presents for children, clothing exchanges where out-grown clothing can be made available for others, and Deacon’s funds are all ways that the smaller church can demonstrate the love of Christ and reach people in the surrounding area.

Trend 4: economic shifts

Many smaller communities have had a significant change in their economic base. Agriculture and timber-related jobs are dwindling and are not attracting new workers. Tourism, the service industry, and a host of other business opportunities have brought new people and new economic forces within the community. Small towns that were once isolated from larger cities have become bedroom communities. This has caused a major shift in the mentality and cultural mindset of the people. Where the populace was once homogeneous, now they find themselves culturally eclectic. The result has been new people with new ideas coming into the church and challenging the established patterns set by the “old timers.” The congregation needs to work carefully with people as they sort through a menagerie of different ideas concerning music, Bible versions, behavior patterns, and expectations. They need to help people realize the unity we have in Christ and the importance of being sensitive to the other person’s expression of personal faith. The leadership needs to have greater skills to resolve conflicts as different traditions collide within the programs, worship styles, and ideas of people.

Trend 5: population shifts

In the past one hundred years a significant shift in the population has influenced how the small church conducts its ministry. While the percent of people living on the farm has declined from 39 percent in 1900 to only 1.9 percent in 1991, the number of people living in rural areas has risen from 45 million in 1900 to 68 million in 1990. In the last 20 years, the percent of the population residing in rural areas has risen form 26.3 percent to 28.8 percent.3 This has resulted in new opportunities for the church for evangelism. The challenge is be attractive to the new people moving into the community and to include them in the life and ministry of the congregation which has been dominated by bloodlines and traditions. People moving into an area will be more influenced by popular culture than those who have lived their whole lives in the community. They will have different views on political and social issues, often finding a church unattractive, not because of the theology or programs, but because of the political and social undertones that characterize the people.

Trend 6: church growth movement

Whether we realize it or not this movement has drastically influenced (both positively and negatively) the landscape of the small church. Positively, it has raised the awareness and importance of outreach and evangelism. It has shown the church the value and necessity of understanding our community and the thought process of the unsaved. It has assisted the congregation by providing helpful ideas for reaching people with the gospel. Negatively, it has redefined success in ministry so that success, and even spirituality, is measured by the numerical growth rather than the heart and character of people. As a result many small churches and pastors have become discouraged by the lack of apparent results. Because of the growth that some churches have experienced, many congregations’ and pastors’ expectations have changed: if numerical growth does not occur, people blame the pastor and the pastor blames the people.

While we should recognize the contribution the church growth movement has made, we should also guard against its negative influences. We need to be more evangelistic, but we must also recognize that salvation is ultimately the product of divine initiative rather than personal efforts, stemming from the convicting work of the Holy Spirit rather than excellent programs (1 Corinthians 3:3-9). Thus, the focus must shift from the results of evangelism (which belong to God) to the process of faithful proclamation (which is the responsibility of people). The critical question is not whether the church is adding to its numbers, but are people sharing their faith with their neighbors, friends, and co-workers.


For those leading the small church, dealing with the dynamics of the small church can be compared to figuring out a Rubik’s cube. The more the leader tries to get the pieces in place, the more confusing it becomes. Trying to place every facet within a coherent structure of organization and ministry is indeed puzzling. Nevertheless, the principles above can help to give guidance and direction in leading the small church. What is important for the leader to realize is that the small church is different and requires different leadership skills.

While spiritual change and spiritual growth are always vital in every church regardless of size, the small church pastor’s ministry should be built upon love and acceptance of the people. Accepting the small church begins by understanding the characteristics that undergird its ministry. The wise church leader needs to carefully consider the unique values, beliefs, customs, traditions and attitudes of the congregation.

The small church pastor must still preach the Word, lead the flock and disciple people, just like his big church counterpart. But being effective in the small church comes when the pastor accepts the people for who they are and learns to value the way they express their faith. His love and understanding (and faithful preaching and teaching of the Word) will give him a great ministry in the small church.


1 http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/rural-economy-population/rural-poverty-we… Accessed Jan 25, 2014.

2 Cornelia Flora, et. al. Rural Communities, Legacy and Change (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1992), p. 285.

3 Donald C. Dahmann, Residents of Farms and Rural Areas: 1991, U.S. Bureau of Census. pp. 2-8; and http://irjci.blogspot.com/2012/04/almost-30-percent-of-americans-live-in… Accessed Jan 25, 2014.

Glenn Daman Bio

Dr. Glenn Daman is graduate of Western Seminary and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and serves as pastor of First Baptist Church, Stevenson WA. He has published three books on small church ministry and is Director of the Small Church Leadership Network.

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