Why Bible Colleges Are Closing…

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Jim's picture

U.S. Colleges Are Facing a Demographic and Existential Crisis

Over the next ten years, according to recent report from The Chronicle of Higher Education 2017 The Future of College Enrollment, U.S. colleges are expected to see a steady decline in their enrollments and this could threaten their continued existence.

And, it’s all about facing up to simple demographics. The nationwide number of high school graduates is declining and will continue to decline in both public and private schools through the 2029-2030 school year. The decline will be seen in all regions with the exception of the South and will affect the Mid-west and Northeast, with their high concentrations of colleges, the most heavily.

We are already seeing a steady decline in overall college enrollment. Between 2011 and 2016, nationwide, the total number of enrolled college students fell every fall from 2011 to 2016, dropping to 19 million from 20.6 million. In Massachusetts, the decline among all categories of colleges has been between 1.3 -1.7% from one year to the next from 2013 through 2016, with the steepest declines seen in 2-year public and 4-year for-profit institutions. Only 4-year public institutions have seen an increase but that has been by less than 1%.

Among 4-year non-profit colleges, small colleges, those with a student body of 3,000 or less students, are likely to be affected most by the enrollment decline. And, they will see the decline greatest among student applicants older than 24, leaving them to increasingly depend most upon the high school graduate population. ...

The downturn in the number of high-school graduates is almost exclusively the result of a decline among white students. They are expected to decrease by 14% by 2030. At the same time, we will see an increase of 12% in minority, particularly Hispanic students. There will also be increase in the percentage of African-American/Black students, as well as students from low-income households.

How colleges adjust to these changes in the demographics of the prospective college enrolment pool will determine whether they survive, thrive, or fall by the wayside.

As the population and the percentage of high school graduates increasingly includes Hispanic/Latino, Black, low-income, and first-to-college groups, vulnerable colleges will need to address the impediments to attracting, enrolling, and graduating them.

Among these are the rising costs of a college education, the increasing skepticism that the return on investment of a college education is worth the cost, the relatively low rates of timely degree completion in both 4-year and 2-year colleges, the reluctance of many to travel far from home and to bear the cost of that travel, the reluctance to take on the burden of long-term debt, the perception of a relative lack of minority and low-income student social and academic support on campuses, and the feeling that there are too few people who share their culture, values, experiences, and interests.

Bert Perry's picture

Bayly--a person I know a bit if only online--is making the point that these colleges are collapsing in great part because of their soft-pedaling or outright repudiation of a Biblical doctrine of sexuality.  Bayly himself comes out on the harder side of the complementarian ethic, going a bit further than I would.  

Put differently, he's arguing that a lot of people assume that intellectual and academic excellence means accommodating modern cultural mores instead of confronting them.  While of course we do not need to confront just for the sake of confronting, but rather because Scripture requires it, I have seen a lot of cases where people who ought to know better choose to simply go with the flow, the exact opposite of what Scripture and logic tell us.

Plus what Jim noted, and the basics that a lot of people don't have the means to spend an extra year or two to get a Bible college degree and also learn their trade.  

Aspiring to be a stick in the mud.

Andrew K's picture

Bert Perry wrote:

Plus what Jim noted, and the basics that a lot of people don't have the means to spend an extra year or two to get a Bible college degree and also learn their trade.  

When I think of how many of my fellow Bible college alumni are currently serving as blue-collar laborers, it does give me a bit of pause. That's a lot of money for a, strictly speaking, unnecessary education. Fortunately a good number of them had family that helped out financially. Well-off grandparents and whatnot. My family were more of the money-borrowing type....

Ron Bean's picture

What is the benefit of a Bible College diploma? Spiritually speaking, one would know more about the Bible but ar there not more affordable ways of gaining the same objective? I assume one could teach in a Christian school, but demand for CDS teachers declines every year. Likewise for a pastoral position. 

"Some things are of that nature as to make one's fancy chuckle, while his heart doth ache." John Bunyan

TylerR's picture

Editor

I've mentioned this many times before, but I believe the ideal route is an undergrad in a secular professional field, and an MA from a seminary. If there is a solid Christian university (e.g. Maranatha) that offers secular professional training with a very, very strong Bible core, that would be even better. As long as your undergrad training equips you to earn a decent living. A BA in Youth Ministries won't do that. Get a professional degree in a secular field with a strong Bible minor, and do an MA, instead.  

  • Look into some sort of program where you can do your first two years of undergrad while in high school for free. Washington State has "Running Start." I did it when I was 16 - 18, before I joined the Navy.
  • Do your first two years of undergrad at a community college, and transfer into a University as a Junior. You'll save oodles of money. 
  • Join the military for four years, learn a secular trade, and then go to school using your GI Bill for free. The free education is worth it. And, you'll get professional training to do whatever job you qualify for, and you'll hit the ground with four years' experience in that field. If you're really ambitious, you go into the military with your Associates already (see "Running Start," above), and use your tuition assistance to finish the last two years of your undergrad for free while in the service, then leave after four years and do an MDiv (almost) entirely for free using your GI BIll. 

As the great philosopher Charlie Sheen said, "winning ... !"

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Bert Perry's picture

I probably am in a rather weak position, being one whose kids are avoiding Bible colleges with my support, but I would even back away from the notion that Bible colleges are "unnecessary." We have a ton of spiritually immature church leaders, and such education is not needed?  Hardly!  The question is how to bridge the gap in cost and make sure that what's being taught actually meets the need.  

To draw a picture, I've had the privilege of reviewing a number of resumes from prospective youth pastors, and have looked into the curricula at their Bible colleges, and I've been quite frankly troubled that a lot of them seem to have been taught what to think rather than how to think.  I remember being surprised to think that a friend who went to Moody characterized his time there as such, but as I've been through this process, I realized he's probably got a point.  If we don't teach the lost tools of learning, as Dorothy Sayers described them, our choices really are people who have been spoon fed some version of fundamentalism or evangelical life--but not someone who's going to be able to think through the consequences of things like evangelical feminism.  It's a scary reality.

Aspiring to be a stick in the mud.

Tim Bayly's picture

Bert says he knows me "a bit." Really?

Many years of reading and commenting on my blog, but he knows me just "a bit?" Weird.

Second, Bert says he's softer than I am on sexuality. So where does he differ? I simply affirm what every single Protestant father in the faith has always affirmed. And Bert never once disagreed with anything I wrote on sexuality. Not once, if I'm remembering correctly. Correct me if I'm wrong, Bert. Precisely what do I write that you repudiate?

What would strengthen us all today is the absence of diffidence in our aligning ourselves with defenders of the faith. There are precious few fundamentalists left.

Speaking personally, I would count myself squarely in alignment with everything Bert has ever written on sexuality. I wish he could or would say the same.

With affection in the Lord.

* * *

BTW, could someone here please commend our book The Grace of Shame to the larger readership of Sharper Iron? I'm certain every last person here would benefit from reading it. Also, if I may be so bold, my own book on Christian fatherhood titled Daddy Tried. The reviews on Goodreads indicate what my doctrine of sexuality actually is—and isn't. Thanks for tolerating my pleas. Smile.

Tim Bayly

Jim's picture

https://www.faith.edu/2017/09/fbbc-enrollment-takes-historic-climb/

Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary is thrilled to announce the 2017 fall semester’s total undergraduate enrollment is up 18% over last year, including an increase of almost 50% in this year’s freshman class over last year’s class.

In light of the large increase of full-time, on-campus students, the school converted a campus apartment building into a residence hall to accommodate the influx of students. Mark Davis, Vice President of Enrollment and Student Life, said, “All signs point to us needing to do more of this type of work in the future. We are humbled and extremely thankful for God blessing us in this way.”

FBBC is thankful for God’s hand of blessing not only in the area of enrollment, but also in finances. The school continues to operate with no debt, and it is paying for campus improvement projects with cash. The Lord brought in $300,000 in just over 60 days to pay for the new seminary building, which will be dedicated and opened on Friday, September 15.

BJU https://www.bju.edu/about/fast-facts.php

Number of Students: Around 3000

MBU : https://www.mbu.edu/about/quick-facts/ (unreported here)

PCC http://www.pcci.edu/generalinfo/fastfactsaboutpcc.aspx  (unreported here)

 

TOvermiller's picture

Bert Perry wrote:

A lot of them seem to have been taught what to think rather than how to think.

Bert, I'm guessing that you will agree when I say that a good Christian education does teach a student what to think ("sound doctrine"), so long as that thinking is clear Bible teaching. But if I understand what you are saying, you believe that they must also be taught how to think, especially in matters of application and social engagement. If I understand you correctly, then I strongly agree.

Bible college training too easily indoctrinates students with what to think and what to do, without encouraging students to ask questions and develop critical thinking abilities (Acts 17:11). The end result is an interesting conglomeration of some Bible teaching mixed together with "traditions of men" presented as doctrine, which is a harmful and detrimental combination (Matt 15:9; Mark 7:7; Col 2:22).

Your observation reminds me of some advice my father shared with me before I went off to college, and has shared with me numerous times since. He said, "Son, be a critical thinker, but without a critical spirit." By God's grace, I have practiced this perspective and may continue to improve at doing so.

Thomas Overmiller
Pastor | StudyGodsWord.com
Blog | ShepherdThoughts.com

Bert Perry's picture

Tom: that's about what I was trying to get at.  Thanks!  One minor addition is that I would say that we ought to teach people how to think before teaching them what to think.  There is a risk, yes, but if our doctrine is correct...

Tim; "a bit" simply reflects my habit of understatement, as well as the fact that I've not yet had the good sense to visit you in Bloomington, but rather know you only online.  Regarding the specific distinction in doctrine, the one point where I was not yet convinced, and where I grant I do not remember engaging, is on the point of whether, and how far, male headship ought to extend into the secular world.  It would seem that Lydia's servants--since she dealt purple I'm guessing she at least had servii to guard the wares she sold--would have had to confront this issue had they come to faith.  Am amenable to being persuaded, but just have not yet been so.  Blessings!

Aspiring to be a stick in the mud.

Steve Newman's picture

Is that there are less parents who value Christian post-secondary education for their kids. Churches have too often turned inward and do not have the vision to see their sons and daughters be part of the expansion of the gospel of Christ. 

Greg Long's picture

TylerR wrote:

I've mentioned this many times before, but I believe the ideal route is an undergrad in a secular professional field, and an MA from a seminary. If there is a solid Christian university (e.g. Maranatha) that offers secular professional training with a very, very strong Bible core, that would be even better. As long as your undergrad training equips you to earn a decent living. A BA in Youth Ministries won't do that. Get a professional degree in a secular field with a strong Bible minor, and do an MA, instead.  

  • Look into some sort of program where you can do your first two years of undergrad while in high school for free. Washington State has "Running Start." I did it when I was 16 - 18, before I joined the Navy.
  • Do your first two years of undergrad at a community college, and transfer into a University as a Junior. You'll save oodles of money. 
  • Join the military for four years, learn a secular trade, and then go to school using your GI Bill for free. The free education is worth it. And, you'll get professional training to do whatever job you qualify for, and you'll hit the ground with four years' experience in that field. If you're really ambitious, you go into the military with your Associates already (see "Running Start," above), and use your tuition assistance to finish the last two years of your undergrad for free while in the service, then leave after four years and do an MDiv (almost) entirely for free using your GI BIll. 

As the great philosopher Charlie Sheen said, "winning ... !"

I'm not completely disagreeing with your advocacy for getting a secular bachelor's degree, Tyler, but once again I will just emphasize that in most cases an MA is not enough training for pastoral ministry.

-------
Greg Long, Ed.D. (SBTS)

Pastor of Adult Ministries
Grace Church, Des Moines, IA

Adjunct Instructor
School of Divinity
Liberty University

Greg Long's picture

(an MA without an undergrad Bible/pastoral ministry degree, I mean)

-------
Greg Long, Ed.D. (SBTS)

Pastor of Adult Ministries
Grace Church, Des Moines, IA

Adjunct Instructor
School of Divinity
Liberty University

Larry Nelson's picture

Steve Newman wrote:

Churches have too often turned inward

What is particularly sad about this is that churches with an inward focus either don't recognize it, or worse, refuse to acknowledge it.

 

TylerR's picture

Editor

It depends on the person. But, generally, I agree with you. However, I continue to be wary of the MDiv as the "gold standard" for preparation, as if the degree guarantees competence. I believe a solid apprenticeship and mentorship in a local church, combined with an MA, can better prepare a man than an MDiv. We've all known men with advanced degrees who couldn't preach their way out of wet paper bags. In my field, I've known NCIS agents who shouldn't investigate kindergarten fights. There are attorneys who have their JD, have passed the bar, but shouldn't ever leave the library. And so it goes, in every profession.

There is something to be said for a basic graduate degree, coupled with a meaningful apprenticeship and practical experience. It is a mistake to generalize, because people are different. I've known men with MDivs who have no discernment, are theological infants, and are absolutely unqualified to lead a preschool Sunday school class.

But, back to the article, I suspect Christians schools which attempt to broaden their base without compromise (e.g. BJU) will see their enrollment grow. MBU and Faith are prime examples. I appreciate MBU's innovative and aggressive approach to online and virtual education. I wish Central and Detroit had jumped on this train a long while ago. I understand many professional educators and administrators have reservations about online and virtual education (Dave Doran has said as much here, many times), but I believe these fears are groundless.

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Ron Bean's picture

In support of Tyler's comments, young people headed into any form of ministry would be well-advised to learn a trade that will provide them with a regular source of income.   We're living in a day where a diploma or even and advanced degree in Bible isn't going to put food on the table. I worked retail with people who had degrees in English, psychology, art, philosophy, and Bible who were selling furniture with me. 

I'd like to see a revival of  the Christian trade school.

"Some things are of that nature as to make one's fancy chuckle, while his heart doth ache." John Bunyan

Bert Perry's picture

Greg Long wrote:

<Tyler's note snipped--read above if you like>

I'm not completely disagreeing with your advocacy for getting a secular bachelor's degree, Tyler, but once again I will just emphasize that in most cases an MA is not enough training for pastoral ministry.

Couple of ways of approaching this.  for starters, given how many people get the right boot of fellowship--the search committee I'm on has interviewed a few such guys--I'm sure part of Tyler's point is to say don't rely on church employment to feed, clothe, and house your family.  Nasty indictment of too many churches out there, but it's real.  That's probably 75% of the reason for advocating a secular BA or BS, really.

Regarding an MA "not being enough", in my mind a good picture of "what is enough?" is suggested by the article we're responding to.  A central part of the thesis, again, is that a lot of formerly fundamental/conservative evangelical schools are becoming weak on doctrines of human sexuality and its consequences in families, churches, and society as a whole.  A gut check for a prospective pastor would be; explain how doctrines of sexuality are linked with other important doctrines.  My hunch is that a lot of prospective and working pastors would be effectively limited to quoting "one woman man" in 1 Timothy and Titus, along with Ephesians 5.  

Aspiring to be a stick in the mud.

dgszweda's picture

I would say it is a couple of other factors.  First, Christian schools, long the staple for University feeders, is dwindling, and definitely the quality of the graduates is dwindling.  Second, online education is becoming much more pervasive.  Whether you argue that is inferior to a standard college attendance approach, the cost and convenience is just outweighing the perceived negative nature of it.  In addition, the younger generation is just consuming things on the internet more.  Third, I believe the rise homeschooling is hurting the attendance.  Most homeschooling models employ some form of remote or online coursework and most are not a traditional model.  Therefore for most homeschoolers who have taken their last 4 years online, to continue online is not much of a stretch.  Fourth, dual enrollment.  With the rise of schools that offer you to take your first two years of college as part of the last two years of high school drops the need for kids to attend the first two years at all.  Lastly, the cost.  BJU is now $25K a year.   For most Christian parents this is too great a cost.  My son is attending a local community college for $2,500 a year, lives at home, and attends and participates in our local church.

I think there is a number of elements at play that colleges were not really getting prepared for.  I think there is still a strong place for Christian education at the secondary level, and I think the right schools can succeed, I just don't think the volume is there, nor may it ever be there.

TylerR's picture

Editor

dgszweda wrote:

I think there is a number of elements at play that colleges were not really getting prepared for.

From what I've seen, MBU is leading the field in preparing for this environment. They're clearly the best-positioned fundamentalist school to tackle the challenges and opportunities of university and graduate education in the 21st century. No other fundamentalist institution even comes close. That's not surprising, 'cuz MBU is the best ...

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

bobbycook's picture

The President of Faith Baptist Bible College, Jim Tillotson, is a proven, visionary, builder. He is reaching out to churches which are not in the traditional GARBC orbit and the school is offering quality training and scholarship at a reasonable price. Faith makes a great effort to give prospective students an attractive taste of school through their "Scholarship Weekends". A really nice bonus is that tuition is offered at par for Canadian students!

Bert Perry's picture

David, perhaps not the central issue here, but when you have the time, I'd love to hear more about why you think K-12 Christian schools are getting worse in quality.

Aspiring to be a stick in the mud.

TylerR's picture

Editor

I know a man on Faith's board who referred to Tillotson as a "modern-day Apostle Paul." He was being slightly sarcastic (I think!), but Faith has indeed been resurgent in the past few years since Tillotson took the reigns ...

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

dgszweda's picture

Bert Perry wrote:

David, perhaps not the central issue here, but when you have the time, I'd love to hear more about why you think K-12 Christian schools are getting worse in quality.

tte

Don't get me wrong there are some great Christian Schools out there.  My view is based on my experience, having either attended or my children attending more than 6 Christian Schools.  I grew up in the beginnings of Christian Schools in the 70's and 80's and attended what was considered one of the premier Christian schools at the time.  My kids have been in both Christian schools and public schools.  The last Christian school they attended is considered one of the largest at 2,000 kids.  A school of that size has considerable resources.  The sports teams compete at the premier level in the state and the football team is often ranked in the top 5 in the nation, with many of the football players in the pro's.  What I have seen in a school this size, where the school is not wanting in money and has the resources, they must compromise on many of their principles to get there.  My kids were exposed to sex, drugs and everything else.  People were brought into the sports programs who were not Christian to help fund the school.  And with all that the education was mediocre at best.

On the other side of the spectrum which is all the more prevalent, you have the struggling Christian School.  I went to a BJU fellowship dinner in Pittsburgh and it was well attended by many Christian school administrators around the area, including into West Virginia.  I talked to many of them, and every single one was struggling.  Most of them were cutting classes and/or grades, and were stacking teachers.  One of my relatives graduated from BJU and the struggle that this relative had, as did many of there friends was that they were forced to work in a school for very little pay and teaching classes that they had no formal education in because of a lack of teachers or a lack of ability to pay for more teachers.  This particular relative (only two years after graduation) dropped out from teaching in Christian school because it was depressing as did many of their friends.

There are some pockets of good ones, no doubt.  But from what I experienced in the 80's to today, it has significantly declined.  Too many schools are closing down or dropping grades.  Teachers are paid miniscule amounts of money, that they would struggle to live on, and too many are required to teach 5 to 6 courses.  While having a Biblical world view is awesome, at what cost does it come with.  What quality do we feel we are giving our kids when we pay the teachers $18,000 a year and often times out of that they have to pay for classroom supplies.

I have also had my kids in some top notch public schools, and while the worldview is awful and the lack of Christian values non existent, the quality of the teachers and the care that the teachers had for the students was something I never saw at any of the Christian schools that I have been exposed to.  Whereas if my kids struggled in a class in Christian school it was often labeled as sin, in the public school, the teachers and principles met 1:1 with my wife and I to put together a plan to help my kid succeed.  

I am not saying public school is better than Christian school, each parent needs to make their own choice that is sovereign to them, I have just personally seen the quality of education in many Christian schools declining.

CAWatson's picture

Me?
BA - Bible college with strong academics (27 credits of Greek and 12 of Hebrew at the undergrad)
MDiv
PhD (ABD)
24 credits towards an MBA. 

11 years experience in transportation operations. Pastoring a small church, I can't really find much work around here that pays what I need to survive. So in the fall, I'm going back to trade school/community college (at 35) to learn a trade to be able to support my family. 

Was Bible College worth it? Yes, for what I received. Has my life been better financially because of it? No. But one must consider "homo spiritualis" as well as "homo economicus" when making a decision on how to spend 4 years of one's life and tens of thousands of dollars

TylerR's picture

Editor

Here's my story:

  • AA at 18 (thanks, local high school for paying for community college)
  • BA in Emergency & Disaster Mgmt while in the service, at 27 (thanks Navy!)
  • MA in Bible from Maranatha at 29 (thanks GI Bill!)
  • MDiv from Maranatha will be finished one day ... if I can figure out Hebrew! (thanks GI Bill!)

Training in military police helped me get my current job, where I (along with another man) lead and supervise all the regulatory insurance fraud investigators in Washington State. I am very, very, very, very grateful for God's grace in giving me a profession I can use outside pastoral ministry. As I mentioned above, I think young men should avoid Bible undergrads at all costs. 

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Jay's picture

  • BA in Pastoral Studies, NIU
  • MA in Pastoral Studies, BJU
  • 14+ years and now a system manager for a nonprofit.  Started as data entry clerk and worked my way up.

Haven't pastored full time a day in my life, and probably never will; cost of living is just too high.

"Our task today is to tell people — who no longer know what sin is...no longer see themselves as sinners, and no longer have room for these categories — that Christ died for sins of which they do not think they’re guilty." - David Wells

Larry Nelson's picture

 

dgszweda wrote:

First, Christian schools, long the staple for University feeders, is dwindling, and definitely the quality of the graduates is dwindling. 

http://fourthbaptistchristianschool.org/ 

My high school alma mater.  Many of you will be familiar with this school as being operated by Fourth Baptist Church (Plymouth, MN).

Enrollment this year is at 268, up from 217 last year (a 24% yoy increase). 

The average ACT score is very good, and numerous students have been either National Merit Scholars or Commended in recent years. 

The facilities are excellent; the school is housed in Fourth Baptist's 130,000 square foot building, opened in 1998:

http://www.mcgough.com/projects/educational/fourth-baptist-church-school-and-seminary/

Jim's picture

Economic factors in play:

  • Wages are stagnant (thinking the parents ... the ones who really pay)
  • Ministry salaries (the teacher, the pastor) are weak (no stats but anecdotal ). My sense is that there is an oversupply of men who prepared for a pastoral vocation in relationship to available, paying, vocational positions
  • College costs going up 3% per year
  • Demographics 
  • Well paying jobs can be had without college

 

Greg Long's picture

Another Christian school bucking the trend. Grand View Christian School is technically only 3 1/2 years old, although its roots go back to the 70s as a Baptist church school. It has grown from 260 students at the start of the 2014-2015 school year to over 400 students now (K-12). 

They are a fully accredited school K-8 school and have a special accreditation in grades 9-12 through College Prep status. College Prep status means that at least 80% of a school’s graduates, every year, must be accepted into a 4 year college or university.  Over the years, they have consistently averaged over 90% of our students being accepted into 4 year institutions.

At the very outset of the formation of the school, the school board and administration sought out and formed a "pastoral council" of local church pastors (of which I am one) to try to help keep the school doctrinally and spiritually sound. They want to actually be a "Christian" (evangelical) school, not just a private school with Christian in the name. 

They have outgrown the current facility and are seeking the Lord's will for what's next.

http://www.grandviewchristianschool.org/

-------
Greg Long, Ed.D. (SBTS)

Pastor of Adult Ministries
Grace Church, Des Moines, IA

Adjunct Instructor
School of Divinity
Liberty University

Greg Long's picture

As far as Bible college is concerned, I am one of what I would guess is thousands upon thousands of men in pastoral ministry who benefited from and continue to be thankful for their Bible college (and seminary) experience. I was taught the Bible, theology, and pastoral ministry, began serving in a local church (was asked to be the volunteer leader of the "youth group"--1 teenager--at a church plant, turned into my first vocational pastoral experience), traveled on summer ministry teams, made lasting ministry friendships, and met and married my wife. Obviously I didn't think Bible college was sufficient in and of itself for me personally as I went on to get an MDiv (and eventually an EdD). But I have absolutely no regrets. It has served me well in my vocation of pastoral ministry, to which I believed (and still believe) I was called.

Of course, my experience does not prove Bible college is necessary any more than anyone else's experience proves Bible college is unnecessary. 

-------
Greg Long, Ed.D. (SBTS)

Pastor of Adult Ministries
Grace Church, Des Moines, IA

Adjunct Instructor
School of Divinity
Liberty University

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