A Baptist Perspective on Reformed Theology, Part 1

From Faith Pulpit, Spring 2019. Used with permission.

The term Reformed theology means different things to different people. For some, this term simply refers to the “doctrines of grace” which are also known as the five points of Calvinism. The five points of Calvinism are:

  • Total depravity: Sin has affected all areas of our personality so that no one seeks after God.
  • Unconditional election: God’s choice of some to be saved was not based on foreseen merit or faith.
  • Limited atonement: God’s purpose in sending His Son was to actually save and preserve the elect.
  • Irresistible grace: Sooner or later, all who have been chosen will come to faith in Christ.
  • Perseverance of the saints: Those who are truly elect and thus saved will persevere.

For others, in addition to Calvinism, Reformed theology includes Covenant theology. This view is taught in the Westminster Confession of Faith, adopted in AD 1646, which was produced by and authoritative for Presbyterians.

Certain Calvinistic Baptists in London wanted the dominant Presbyterians to know they were not a sect, but rather very similar to them, so they produced a modified Baptist edition of the Westminster Confession, known as the Second London Confession of Faith (LBCF) which was adopted in AD 1689. Here is a website that compares these two Confessions, noting differences and similarities: www.proginosko.com.

Covenant theology centers its teaching around two major covenants:

The Covenant of Works:

The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience to Him as their creator, yet they could never have attained the reward of life but by some voluntary condescension of God’s part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant. (LBCF, VII:1)

God gave to Adam a law of universal obedience written in his heart, and a particular precept of not eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; by which he bound him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it, and endued him with power and ability to keep it. The same law was first written in the heart of man continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness after the fall, and was delivered by God upon Sinai, in ten commandments, and written in two tables. (LBCF, XIX:1,2)

The Covenant of Grace:

The covenant of works being broken by sin, and made unprofitable unto life, God was pleased to give forth the promise of Christ, the seed of the woman, as the means of calling the elect, and begetting in them faith and repentance; in this promise the gospel, as to the substance of it, was revealed, and [is] therein effectual for the conversion and salvation of sinners. (LBCF, XX:1)

Moreover, man having brought himself under the curse of the law by his fall, it pleased the Lord to make a covenant of grace, wherein he freely offereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved; and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto eternal life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe. (LBCF, VII:2)

This covenant is revealed in the gospel; first of all to Adam in the promise of salvation by the seed of the woman, and afterwards by farther steps, until the full discovery thereof was completed in the New Testament; and it is founded in that eternal covenant transaction that was between the Father and the Son about the redemption of the elect; and it is alone by the grace of this covenant that all the posterity of fallen Adam that ever were saved did obtain life and blessed immortality, man being now utterly incapable of acceptance with God upon those terms on which Adam stood in his state of innocency. (LBCF, VII:3)

It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, according to the covenant made between them both, to be the mediator between God and man; the prophet, priest, and king; head and saviour of the church, the heir of all things, and judge of the world; unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to be his seed and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. (LBCF, VII:3)

My evaluation of these issues:

I. The doctrines of grace evaluated from Romans 8:28-30

28 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. 29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. (NKJV)

Notice the following truths from these verses:

Romans 8:28 begins with certain knowledge: “And we know…”

The promise is not that all things which happen are good; rather the promise is that all things work together towards a goal that is called good. Liquid vanilla tastes bitter but when mixed in the right amount with other ingredients, the end result is good.

God being in control of all that occurs. The blessed reality that all things work together for good rests on the fact that God determines or permits everything that comes to pass.

This promise is not made to all human beings, but only to believers. They are the ones who love God; they are the ones who are “the called according to His purpose.”

God’s purpose is explained in verses 29 and 30 and involves His determination to do five things to the same people:

(a) He foreknew these people. This is where scholars disagree. Foreknowledge might be passive awareness or it might be knowledge based on God’s involvement.

(b) He predestined the people whom He foreknew to be conformed to Christ’s image, an event that takes place at Christ’s return (1 John 3:2) and is described as being glorified. (Romans 8:18-21, 30)

(c) He called the same people He foreknew and predestined. This calling is only for those whom God foreknew and predestined. This calling produces an affirmative response because these people are not only called but also justified. This is why “those who love God” in verse 28 are believers.

(d) He justified the same people whom He foreknew, predestined, and called. This is where the glory of the cross can be seen. How can people know with certainty that they are part of the people whom God has foreknown, predestined, and called? Only by means of their justification!

This passage tells us that the ones God foreknew are the ones He also predestined and called. But God’s Word tells us that we can know we are justified: “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Romans 5:1); “Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him” (Romans 5:9, NKJV).

(e) He glorified all those whom He justified. None will be lost.

(Next: The origin and nature of the church evaluated.)

Myron Houghton Bio

Myron J. Houghton is the Senior Professor of Systematic Theology and director of the Master of Arts Theological Studies program at Faith Baptist Theological Seminary. He taught at Denver Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary before coming to Faith in 1983. His earned degrees include the following: BA, Pillsbury Baptist Bible College; BD, Grand Rapids Theological Seminary; ThM, Grace Theological Seminary; PhD, Dallas Theological Seminary; MLA, Southern Methodist University; MA St. Thomas Theological Seminary; ThD, Concordia Seminary.

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There are 8 Comments

TylerR's picture


Different Baptists think different things about Reformed theology. Judging from the author's published work, I can anticipate his verdict on Reformed theology, particularly soteriology, will not be positive! Reformed Baptists, though, would beg to differ. Baptists generally coalese around the doctrine of the church; they're all over the map on everything else. This is one reason why Baptists aren't a denomination, in the true sense - they have no distinctive confessional ethos beyond ecclesiology. 

The series might better be titled, "A Baptist, Dispensational, Anti-Reformed Perspective of Reformed Theology." Houghton doesn't speak for all Baptists, in the sense that a Presbyterian could write an identical article on the basis of the Westminster Standards. 

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and an Investigations Manager with a Washington State agency. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Aaron Blumer's picture


I could be wrong, but I think Hougton is a five pointer. Maybe only 4. Anti-covenant theology isn't exactly the same thing as anti-Reformed, though plenty of Reformed folks would insist it is. 

... and yes, the gap widens when he gets to ecclesiology. 

TylerR's picture


I used the Reformed label because Houghton does, and his article states he sees CT as included under the umbrella of RT. Unless he's changed his views, I don't expect this to be a positive evaluation. Have to see if he sticks with a critique of the covenant of grace (etc.) Or moves to critique of active obedience and other aspects of Reformed soterioligy.

My other point was simply to note there is no one Baptist view of RT; Baptists are all over the map on about every issue except (usually) ecclesiology. 

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and an Investigations Manager with a Washington State agency. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Jay's picture

If Dr. Houghton is unfair in his assessment of Reformed Theology, I am certain we can find someone somewhere to write a rebuttal article.  :)

"Our task today is to tell people — who no longer know what sin is...no longer see themselves as sinners, and no longer have room for these categories — that Christ died for sins of which they do not think they’re guilty." - David Wells

TylerR's picture


I'm sure he's fair. I just don't think he'll be in favor of it!

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and an Investigations Manager with a Washington State agency. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

Aaron Blumer's picture


No, not in favor. This article is just a two-part overview from a Baptist pov, mainly with "people not very familiar with Reformed Theology" in mind.

If " Reformed" can be sort of nutshelled as 1/3 soteriology, 1/3 ecclesiology, and 1/3 covenant theology/eschatology, I'd say he's maybe 35% Reformed.

I don't know him personally, but I bet he'd prefer to say his position is biblical, which happens to match up with about 1/3 of RT. Smile

TylerR's picture


Houghton book is perhaps the most comprehensive, best DT perspective on the use of the law (yes, he defines it!) for the Christian today. I've read it three times, and still can't grasp what he's saying - the DT position (except for Ryrie) has always confused me. In my experience, it confuses many Christians in DT churches, too. I must read Houghton again and write my responses. It's on my to do list. 

Houghton also disagreed with active obedience.

Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and an Investigations Manager with a Washington State agency. He's the author of the book What's It Mean to Be a Baptist?

J. Baillet's picture

He doesn't take a position on "foreknowledge." He says,

(a) He foreknew these people. This is where scholars disagree. Foreknowledge might be passive awareness or it might be knowledge based on God’s involvement.

All else in his (a) through (e) string builds off of this. If he doesn't clearly recognize that foreknowledge necessarily means foreordination, then he is no Calvinist at all.

I agree with the comments to Part 2. This is a Dispensational Perspective on Reformed Theology not a Baptist Perspective. Perhaps not even that since many Dispensationalists are indeed Calvinists. Nevertheless, it is a perspective of a Dispensational Baptist.


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